To analyze something is to examine it in order to explain and interpret it. Thus, to analyze literature is to examine its parts in order to explain and interpret what the entire work is all about. Analyzing literature is not simply reciting the story of the novel or play, narrating the events, or trying to summarize the entire text. You need to identify the literary elements in the given text, such as setting, plot, characters, theme, mood/tone, imagery, symbolism, narrative techniques, dramatic techniques, poetic devices, etc. You need to present an argument or pick a theme and support it with relevant literary elements (evidence from the text). In this video, I'll show you how exactly to analyze literature with copious examples.
Benjamin Abugu video.